Research on Excelerol and its affects on the brain

Clinical Studies

PhosphatidyiSerine (PS) and Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine (AGPC)

PhosphatidyiSerine (PS)
Although PhosphatidyiSerine (PS) is derived from soy it does not contain any soy proteins which are the critical factor when determining if an ingredient causes allergic reactions to those who may be sensitive to soy. It is unlikely that PhosphatidyiSerine (PS) will cause an allergic reaction to those with or without soy allergies.

Technical Data Sheet

  • 010910
  • FDA’s Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of
  • 2004 (21 usc 343)

Section 203: Food Labeling; Requirement Of Information Regarding Allergenic Substances For: PhosphatidyiSerine (PS)

Labeling Statement
Under the section entitled, (c) Conforming Amendments, within FDA’s Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (21 USC 343), all of the above listed specialty ingredient products are exempted as “major food allergens” from allergenic labeling, since they are ingredients derived from highly refined (soybean) oil.

Additional Allergenicity Information

  1. This is to certify that all of the above listed specialty ingredient products do not contain soy, peanuts, tree nuts, eggs, milk, fish, crustacean (shellfish), wheat, corn, yeast, or gluten.

  2. This is to certify, that additionally, all of the above listed specialty ingredient products are non-allergenic, and that they are produced by Chemi S.p.A., Milan, Italy, and I or ITF Chemical Ltda., Camacari, Brazil, in contained environments within dedicated manufacturing facilities, that have no exposure to other potential allergenic food compounds, including, but not limited to soy, peanuts, tree nuts, eggs, milk, fish, crustacean (shellfish), wheat, corn, yeast, or gluten.

PhosphatidyiSerine (PS) Studies and Research

  1. ^ Verhoven, B; Schlegel, RA, Williamson, P (1995 Nov 1). “Mechanisms of phosphatidylserine exposure, a phagocyte recognition signal, on apoptotic T lymphocytes.”. The Journal of experimental medicine 182 (5): 1597–601. PMID 7595231.

  2. ^ Blokland A, Honig W, Brouns F, Jolles J (October 1999). “Cognition-enhancing properties of subchronic phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment in middle-aged rats: comparison of bovine cortex PS with egg PS and soybean PS”. Nutrition 15 (10): 778–83. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(99)00157-4. PMID 10501292.

  3. ^ Crook, T. H.; R. M. Klatz (ed) (1998). Treatment of Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Effects of Phosphatidylserine in Anti-Aging Medical Therapeutics. 2. Chicago: Health Quest Publications. pp. 20–29.

  4. ^ Jorissen BL, Brouns F, Van Boxtel MP, Ponds RW, Verhey FR, Jolles J, Riedel WJ. (2001). “The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment.”. Nutritional Neuroscience 4 (2): 121–34. PMID 11842880.

  5. ^ Jäger R, Purpura M, Kingsley M (7 2007). “Phospholipids and sports performance”. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 4: 5.doi:10.1186/1550-2783-4-5. PMC 1997116. PMID 17908342.

  6. ^ Starks MA, Starks SL, Kingsley M, Purpura M, Jäger R (7 2008). “The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise”. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 5: 11. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-5-11. PMC 2503954. PMID18662395.

  7. ^ Jäger R, Purpura M, Geiss KR, Weiß M, Baumeister J, Amatulli F, Schröder L, Herwegen H. (12 2007). “The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance”. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 4 (1): 23. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-4-23. PMC 2217563. PMID18053194.

  8. ^ Hirayama S, Masuda Y, Rabeler R (September/October 2006). “Effect of phosphatidylserine administration on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children”. Agro Food 17 (5): 32–36.

  9. ^ Vaisman N, Kaysar N, Zaruk-Adasha Y, Pelled D, Brichon G, Zwingelstein G, Bodennec J (2008). “Correlation between changes in blood fatty acid composition and visual sustained attention performance in children with inattention: effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids containing phospholipids.”.The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87 (5): 1170–1180. PMID 18469236.

  10. ^ Jorissen BL, Brouns F, Van Boxtel MP, Riedel WJ (October 2002). “Safety of soy-derived phosphatidylserine in elderly people”. Nutr Neurosci 5(5): 337–343. doi:10.1080/1028415021000033802. PMID 12385596.

  11. ^ Hoffmann PR, Kench JA, Vondracek A, et al. (February 2005). “Interaction between phosphatidylserine and the phosphatidylserine receptor inhibits immune responses in vivo”. J. Immunol. 174 (3): 1393–404. PMID 15661897.

  12. ^ Carr DJ, Guarcello V, Blalock JE (September 1992). “Phosphatidylserine suppresses antigen-specific IgM production by mice orally administered sheep red blood cells”. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 200 (4): 548–54. PMID 1508948.

  13. ^ Souci SW, Fachmann E, Kraut H (2008). Food Composition and Nutrition Tables. Medpharm Scientific Publishers Stuttgart.


External links

L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha GPC,alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine ,or choline alfoscerate) Studies and Research

  1. ^ De Jesus Moreno Moreno M (January 2003). “Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial”. Clin Ther 25 (1): 178–93.doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(03)90023-3.PMID 12637119.

  2. ^ Parnetti, Lucilla; et al. (2007). “Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: Ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation?”.Journal of the Neurological Sciences 257: 266. PMID 17331541.

  3. ^ Barbagallo Sangiorgi G, et al. “Alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks.” An Italian multicenter clinical trial. Ann NY Acad Sci 1994; 717:253-69.


Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Accepted 31 October 2002.


Background: Parallel with the development of hypotheses regarding cholinergic involvement in geriatric memory dysfunction, the first attempts to treat patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involved the cholinergic-precursor loading approach. Despite encouraging early results, well-controlled clinical trials did not confirm a clinical utility of cholinergic precursors such as choline and lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) in AD.

Objective: This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of the cholinergic precursor choline alfoscerate (CA) in the treatment of cognitive impairment due to mild to moderate AD.

Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, patients affected by mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer type were treated with CA (400-mg capsules) or placebo capsules, 3 times daily, for 180 days. Efficacy outcome measures that were assessed at the beginning of the investigation and after 90 and 180 days of treatment included scores of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), the Mini-Mental State Examinationâ„¢ (MMSE), the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Behavioral Subscale (ADAS-Behav), all items of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Total), and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale. The Global Improvement Scale (GIS) score was assessed after 90 and 180 days of treatment.

  1. PS, Cortisol, GH And Test. Response to Exercise
  2. Muratorio-A-GPC v. CDP-Choline-040610
  3. Cholinergic Precursors And Cog. Impairment
  4. A-GPC-Power Output Study-Ziegenfuss-ISSN-060908
  5. A-GPC & GH Response-ceda-011309
  6. 18 Thomas Crook PS Article
  7. 9 Influence of PS on mood and Heart Rate
  8. 7 Comparative Study following AGPC
  9. 6 Cognitive Improvement with AGPC
  10. 4 Cortisol, Stress, and Health

Huperzine A is a naturally occurring asfound in the plant firmossHuperzia serrata

Huperzine Studies and Research

Huperzine A Phase II Findings

Many studies on Huperzine have been completed including this multi-center, double blind, placebo controlled trial to determine whether natural Huperzine-A improves cognitive function of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. ^ Kozikowski, Alan P.; Tueckmantel, Werner (1999). “Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Clinical Efficacy of the Chinese Nootropic Agent Huperzine A”. Accounts of Chemical Research 32 (8): 641–650.doi:10.1021/ar9800892.

  2. ^ P. Scalfaro, V. Nicolas, M.P. Simonin, S. Charbon, M. McCormick, F. Heimgartner. The sustained release of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor ZT-1 confers the potential for a more efficient neuroprotection in rats. Neurobiology of Aging Conference in New Orleans, Nov 2003.

  3. ^ Wang, Bai-Song; Wang, Hao; Wei, Zhao-hui; Song, Yan-yan; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan (2009). “Efficacy and safety of natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitor huperzine A in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: an updated meta-analysis”. Journal of Neural Transmission 116 (4): 457. doi:10.1007/s00702-009-0189-x.PMID 19221692.

  4. ^ Sun, QQ; Xu, SS; Pan, JL; Guo, HM; Cao, WQ (1999). “Huperzine-A capsules enhance memory and learning performance in 34 pairs of matched adolescent students.”. Zhongguo yao li xue bao = Acta pharmacologica Sinica 20 (7): 601–3. PMID 10678121.

  5. ^ a b Wang, BS; Wang, H; Wei, ZH; Song, YY; Zhang, L; Chen, HZ (2009). “Efficacy and safety of natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitor huperzine A in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: an updated meta-analysis.”. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 116 (4): 457–65. doi:10.1007/s00702-009-0189-x.PMID 19221692.

  6. ^ Coleman, BR; Ratcliffe, RH; Oguntayo, SA; Shi, X; Doctor, BP; Gordon, RK; Nambiar, MP (2008). “+-Huperzine A treatment protects against N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced seizure/status epilepticus in rats.”. Chemico-biological interactions 175 (1-3): 387–95.doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2008.05.023. PMID18588864.

  7. ^ Zangara, A (2003). “The psychopharmacology of huperzine A: an alkaloid with cognitive enhancing and neuroprotective properties of interest in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease”. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 75 (3): 675–86. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(03)00111-4. PMID12895686.

  8. ^ a b Bai, D. L.; Tang, X. C.; He, X. C. (2000). “Huperzine A, a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease”. Current Medicinal Chemistry 7 (3): 355–374. PMID 10637369.

  9. ^ Tang, X. C.; He, X. C.; Bai, D. L. (1999). “Huperzine A: a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor”. Drugs of the Future 24 (6): 647–663.doi:10.1358/dof.1999.024.06.545143.

  10. ^ Tang, L., Wang, R., Tang, X. (2005). “Effects of huperzine A on secretion of nerve growth factor in cultured rat cortical astrocytes and neurite outgrowth in rat PC12 cells”. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 26(6): 673–678. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7254.2005.00130.x.PMID 15916732.

  11. ^ Huperzine A, Alzherimer Research Forum

Vitamin B12, vitamin B12 or vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin
Research and Studies

  1. ^[unreliable source?]Vitamin B-12: Rhetoric and Reality (CONT., 3 OF 5)

  2. ^ a b “Vitamin B12″. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 3 April 2011.

  3. ^ Hall AH, Rumack BH (1987). “Hydroxycobalamin/sodium thiosulfate as a cyanide antidote”. The Journal of Emergency Medicine 5 (2): 115–21. doi:10.1016/0736-4679(87)90074-6.PMID 3295013.

  4. ^ Dart RC (2006). “Hydroxocobalamin for acute cyanide poisoning: new data from preclinical and clinical studies; new results from the prehospital emergency setting”. Clinical Toxicology 44 (Suppl 1): 1–3. doi:10.1080/15563650600811607. PMID 16990188.

  5. ^ Vogiatzoglou A, Refsum H, Johnston C, et al. (2008). “Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly”.Neurology 71 (11): 826–32.doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000325581.26991.f2. PMID 18779510.

  6. ^ Stephen Walsh. “What every vegan should know about vitamin B12″. Vegan Society. Archived from the original on 2007-07-17. Retrieved 2007-12-03.

  7. ^ Reed Mangels, Ph.D., R.D.. “Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet”. Vegetarian Resource Group. Retrieved 2008-01-17.

  8. ^ “Don’t Vegetarians Have Trouble Getting Enough Vitamin B12?”.Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. Retrieved 2008-01-17.

  9. ^ a b c d e Vitamin B12,

  10. ^ a b c Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12

  11. ^ Sethi NK, Robilotti E, Sadan Y (2005). “Neurological Manifestations Of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency”. The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness 2 (1).

  12. ^ Masalha R, Chudakov B, Muhamad M, Rudoy I, Volkov I, Wirguin I (2001). “Cobalamin-responsive psychosis as the sole manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency”. Israeli Medical Association Journal 3: 701–703.

  13. ^ Bønaa KH et al. (2006). “Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction”. The New England Journal of Medicine 354 (15): 1578–88.doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055227. PMID 16531614.
  14. ^ Lonn E, Yusuf S, Arnold MJ, et al. (2006). “Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease”. The New England Journal of Medicine 354 (15): 1567–77.doi:10.1056/NEJMoa060900. PMID 16531613.

  15. ^ Pott JW, Wong KH (2006). “Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency”. Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 244 (10): 1357–9.doi:10.1007/s00417-006-0269-7. PMID 16523300.

  16. ^ Andrès E, Noel E, Goichot B (2002). “Metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency”. Arch Intern Med 162 (19): 2251–2.doi:10.1001/archinte.162.19.2251-a. PMID 12390080.

  17. ^ Gilligan M (2002). “Metformin and vitamin B12 deficiency”. Arch Intern Med 162 (4): 484–5. doi:10.1001/archinte.162.4.484.PMID11863489.

  18. ^ Bauman, WA; Shaw, S; Jayatilleke, E; Spungen, AM; Herbert, V (2000). “Increased intake of calcium reverses vitamin B12 malabsorption induced by metformin.”. Diabetes care 23 (9): 1227–31. doi:10.2337/diacare.23.9.1227. PMID 10977010.

  19. ^ Samantha Copp (2005-12-01). “What effect does metformin have on vitamin B12 levels?”. UK Medicines Information, NHS. –report (.doc)

  20. ^ Conrad, Marcel (2006-10-04). “Pernicious Anemia”. Retrieved 2008-06-02.

  21. ^ Palva IP et al. (1972). “Drug induced malabsorption of vitamin B12 – IV – malabsorption and deficiency of B12 during treatment with slow-release potassium chloride”. Acta Med Scand 191 (4): 355–7.PMID 5032681.

  22. ^ Herbert V (1988). “Vitamin B-12: plant sources, requirements, and assay”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48 (3 Suppl): 852–8.PMID 3046314.

  23. ^ Jaouen, G., ed (2006). Bioorganometallics: Biomolecules, Labeling, Medicine. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-30990-X.[page needed]

  24. ^ Loeffler, G. (2005). Basiswissen Biochemie. Heidelberg: Springer. p. 606. ISBN 3-540-23885-9.

  25. ^ Khan, Adil Ghani; Eswaran, S. V. (2003). “Woodward’s synthesis of vitamin B12″. Resonance 8: 8. doi:10.1007/BF02837864.

  26. ^ Eschenmoser A, Wintner CE (June 1977). “Natural product synthesis and vitamin B12″. Science 196 (4297): 1410–20.doi:10.1126/science.867037. PMID 867037.

  27. ^ Riether, Doris; Mulzer, Johann (2003). “Total Synthesis of Cobyric Acid: Historical Development and Recent Synthetic Innovations”.European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2003: 30. doi:10.1002/1099-0690(200301)2003:1<30::AID-EJOC30>3.0.CO;2-I.

  28. ^ Martens JH, Barg H, Warren MJ, Jahn D (2002). “Microbial production of vitamin B12″. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology58 (3): 275–85. doi:10.1007/s00253-001-0902-7.PMID 11935176.

  29. ^ Linnell JC, Matthews DM (1984). “Cobalamin metabolism and its clinical aspects”. Clinical Science 66 (2): 113–21. PMID 6420106.

  30. ^ Vitamin B12. Code of Federal Regulations. U.S. Government Printing Office. Title 21, Volume 3. Revised. April 1, 2001. CITE: 21CFR184.1945 p. 552

  31. ^ De Baets S, Vandedrinck S, Vandamme EJ (2000). “Vitamins and Related Biofactors, Microbial Production”. In Lederberg J.Encyclopedia of Microbiology. 4 (2nd ed.). New York: Academic Press. pp. 837–853. ISBN 0122268008.

  32. ^ (English)«New round of price slashing in vitamin B12 sector. (Fine and Specialty)», 1/2009.

  33. ^ 90% of the global production, following Â«Where does B12 come from?».

  34. ^ Argument for providing B12 with food fortification of folate, since otherwise folate will correct hematological symptoms while leaving neurological symptoms to progress

  35. ^ Voet, Judith G.; Voet, Donald (1995). Biochemistry. New York: J. Wiley & Sons. p. 675. ISBN 0-471-58651-X. OCLC 31819701.

  36. ^ Banerjee, R; Ragsdale, SW (2003). “The many faces of vitamin B12: catalysis by cobalamin-dependent enzymes.”. Annual review of biochemistry 72: 209–47.doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.72.121801.161828.PMID 14527323.

  37. ^ Banerjee RV, Matthews RG (1990). “Cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase”. The FASEB Journal 4 (5): 1450–9.PMID 2407589.

  38. ^ Wickramasinghe SN (1995). “Morphology, biology and biochemistry of cobalamin- and folate-deficient bone marrow cells”.Baillière’s Clinical Haematology 8 (3): 441–59. doi:10.1016/S0950-3536(05)80215-X. PMID8534956.

  39. ^ Naidich MJ, Ho SU (2005). “Case 87: Subacute combined degeneration”. Radiology 237 (1): 101–5.doi:10.1148/radiol.2371031757. PMID16183926.

  40. ^ Marks, Allan D. Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach,3rd Ed., p 757.

  41. ^ Melinda Beck (January 18, 2011). “Sluggish? Confused? Vitamin B12 May Be Low”. Wall Street Journal.

  42. ^ a b Combs, Gerald F. (2008). The vitamins: fundamental aspects in nutrition and health (3rd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press.ISBN 0121834921. OCLC 150255807.[page needed]

  43. ^ Marcel E Conrad Pernicious Anemia Aug 26, 2009

  44. ^ “B12: An essential part of a healthy plant-based diet”.

  45. ^ a b

  46. ^ Adapted from:“Vitamin B-12 content of selected foods” (PDF).USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Retrieved 2010-12-20.

  47. ^ Doscherholmen A et al. (1975). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 149. pp. 987–90.

  48. ^ Wakayama EJ, Dillwith JW, Howard RW, Blomquist GJ (1984). “Vitamin B12 levels in selected insects”. Insect Biochemistry 14: 175–179.doi:10.1016/0020-1790(84)90027-1.

  49. ^ Walsh, Stephen, RD. “Vegan Society B12 factsheet”. Vegan Society. Retrieved 2008-01-17.

  50. ^ Donaldson, MS (2000). “Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements”. Ann Nutr Metab 44 (5-6): 229–234.doi:10.1159/000046689. PMID 11146329.

  51. ^ Norris, Jack, RD. “B12 in Tempeh, Seaweeds, Organic Produce, and Other Plant Foods”. Retrieved 2008-01-17.

  52. ^ Walsh, Stephen. “What Every Vegan Should Know about Vitamin B12″. Retrieved 2011-02-18.

  53. ^ Sharabi, A; Cohen, E; Sulkes, J; Garty, M (2003). “Replacement therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency: comparison between the sublingual and oral route.”. British journal of clinical pharmacology56 (6): 635–8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01907.x.PMC 1884303. PMID 14616423.

  54. ^ Bolaman Z, Kadikoylu G, Yukselen V, Yavasoglu I, Barutca S, Senturk T (2003). “Oral versus intramuscular cobalamin treatment in megaloblastic anemia: a single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label study”. Clin Ther 25 (12): 3124–34. doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(03)90096-8. PMID 14749150.

  55. ^ Lane LA, Rojas-Fernandez C (2002). “Treatment of vitamin b(12)-deficiency anemia: oral versus parenteral therapy”. Ann Pharmacother 36 (7-8): 1268–72. doi:10.1345/aph.1A122.PMID 12086562.

  56. ^ Butler CC et al. (2006). “Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials”. Fam Pract 23 (3): 279–85.doi:10.1093/fampra/cml008. PMID 16585128.

  57. ^ Andersson HC, Shapira E (1998). “Biochemical and clinical response to hydroxocobalamin versus cyanocobalamin treatment in patients with methylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria (cblC)”. J. Pediatr. 132 (1): 121–4. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(98)70496-2.PMID 9470012.

  58. ^ Roze E, Gervais D, Demeret S, et al. (2003). “Neuropsychiatric disturbances in presumed late-onset cobalamin C disease”. Arch. Neurol. 60 (10): 1457–62. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.10.1457.PMID 14568819.

  59. ^ Thauvin-Robinet C, Roze E, Couvreur G, et al. (2008). “The adolescent and adult form of cobalamin C disease: clinical and molecular spectrum”. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 79 (6): 725.doi:10.1136/jnnp.2007.133025. PMID18245139.

  60. ^ Heil SG, Hogeveen M, Kluijtmans LA, et al. (2007). “Marfanoid features in a child with combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria (CblC type)”. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30 (5): 811.doi:10.1007/s10545-007-0546-6. PMID17768669.

  61. ^ Tsai AC et al. (2007). “Late-onset combined homocystinuria and methylmalonic aciduria (cblC) and neuropsychiatric disturbance”.Am. J. Med. Genet. A 143 (20): 2430–4. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31932.PMID 17853453.

  62. ^ [1] safety of non-cyanocobalamin forms of B12

Niacin Research and Studies

  1. ^ “Niacin – PubChem Public Chemical Database”. The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information.

  2. ^ Jaconello P (October 1992). “Niacin versus niacinamide”. CMAJ147 (7): 990. PMC 1336277. PMID 1393911.

  3. ^ Knip M, Douek IF, Moore WP, et al. (2000). “Safety of high-dose nicotinamide: a review”. Diabetologia 43 (11): 1337–45.doi:10.1007/s001250051536. PMID11126400.

  4. ^ Cox, Michael; Lehninger, Albert L; Nelson, David R. (2000).Lehninger principles of biochemistry. New York: Worth Publishers.ISBN 1-57259-153-6.

  5. ^ [1] NIH stops clinical trial on combination cholesterol treatment

  6. ^ United States Department of Agriculture, National Agriculture Library, Food and Nutrition Information Center, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins [2]

  7. ^ Institute of Medicine. (2006). Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary, p. 37. National Academies Press.

  8. ^ Jacob RA, Swendseid ME, McKee RW, Fu CS, Clemens RA (April 1989). “Biochemical markers for assessment of niacin status in young men: urinary and blood levels of niacin metabolites”. J. Nutr.119 (4): 591–8. PMID2522982.

  9. ^ Pitsavas, Stergios; Christina Andreou, Franzesca Bascialla, Vasilis P. Bozikas, Athanasios Karavatos (2004). “Pellagra Encephalopathy Following B-Complex Vitamin Treatment without Niacin”.International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 31 (1): 91–96. Retrieved 2009-11-27.

  10. ^ a b c d Prakash, Ravi; Sachin Gandotra, Lokesh Kumar Singh, Basudeb Das, Anuja Lakra (2008). “Rapid resolution of delusional parasitosis in pellagra with niacin augmentation therapy”. General Hospital Psychiatry 30 (6): 581–4.doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2008.04.011. PMID19061687.

  11. ^ a b Katzung, Bertram G. (2006). Basic and clinical pharmacology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division.ISBN 0071451536.

  12. ^ McGovern ME (2005). “Taking aim at HDL-C. Raising levels to reduce cardiovascular risk”. Postgrad Med 117 (4): 29–30, 33–5, 39 passim.PMID15842130.

  13. ^ Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK, et al. (1986). “Fifteen year mortality in Coronary Drug Project patients: long-term benefit with niacin”. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 8 (6): 1245–55. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(86)80293-5. PMID3782631.

  14. ^ N Engl J Med 361:2113

  15. ^ Singer, Natasha (November 15, 2009). “Study Raises Questions About Cholesterol Drug’s Benefit”. The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2009.

  16. ^ Bruckert, E; Labreuche, J; Amarenco, P (2010). “Meta-analysis of the effect of nicotinic acid alone or in combination on cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis”. Atherosclerosis 210 (2): 353–61.doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.12.023. PMID 20079494.

  17. ^

  18. ^ a b c d Keith Parker; Laurence Brunton; Goodman, Louis Sanford; Lazo, John S.; Gilman, Alfred (2006). Goodman & Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. New York: McGraw-Hill.ISBN 0071422803.

  19. ^ “Guidelines for Niacin Therapy For the Treatment of Elevated Lipoprotein a (Lpa)”. Rush Hemophilia & Thrombophilia Center. August 15, 2002, Revised July 27, 2005. Retrieved 20 November 2009. “facial flushing is a common side effect of niacin therapy that usually subsides after several weeks of consistent niacin use”

  20. ^ Barter, P (2006). “Options for therapeutic intervention: How effective are the different agents?”. European Heart Journal Supplements 8(F): F47–F53. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/sul041.

  21. ^ Chapman MJ, Assmann G, Fruchart JC, Shepherd J, Sirtori C (2004). “Raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with reduction of cardiovascular risk: the role of nicotinic acid–a position paper developed by the European Consensus Panel on HDL-C”. Curr Med Res Opin 20 (8): 1253–68. doi:10.1185/030079904125004402.PMID 15324528.

  22. ^ a b Papaliodis D, Boucher W, Kempuraj D, Michaelian M, Wolfberg A, House M, Theoharides TC (December 2008). “Niacin-induced “Flush” Involves Release of Prostaglandin D2 from Mast Cells and Serotonin from Platelets: Evidence from Human Cells in Vitro and an Animal Model”. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 327 (3): 665–72.doi:10.1124/jpet.108.141333. PMID 18784348.

  23. ^ Capuzzi DM, Morgan JM, Brusco OA, Intenzo CM (2000). “Niacin dosing: relationship to benefits and adverse effects”. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2 (1): 64–71. doi:10.1007/s11883-000-0096-y.PMID 11122726.

  24. ^ Mittal MK, Florin T, Perrone J, Delgado JH, Osterhoudt KC (2007). “Toxicity from the use of niacin to beat urine drug screening”. Ann Emerg Med 50 (5): 587–90.doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2007.01.014. PMID 17418450.

  25. ^ Gass JD (2003). “Nicotinic acid maculopathy. 1973″. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 23 (6 Suppl): 500–10. PMID 15035390.

  26. ^ Taheri, R (2003-01-15). “No-Flush Niacin for the Treatment of Hyperlipidemia”. Medscape. Retrieved 2008-03-31.

  27. ^ Kruse W, Kruse W, Raetzer H, Heuck CC, Oster P, Schellenberg B, Schlierf G (1979). “Nocturnal inhibition of lipolysis in man by nicotinic acid and derivatives”. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 16(1): 11–15. doi:10.1007/BF00644960. PMID 499296.

  28. ^ Meyers CD, Carr MC, Park S, Brunzell JD (2003). “Varying cost and free nicotinic acid content in over-the-counter niacin preparations for dyslipidemia”. Annals of Internal Medicine 139 (12): 996–1002.PMID 14678919.

  29. ^ Benjó AM, Maranhão RC, Coimbra SR, Andrade AC, Favarato D, Molina MS, Brandizzi LI, da Luz PL (2006). “Accumulation of chylomicron remnants and impaired vascular reactivity occur in subjects with isolated low HDL cholesterol: effects of niacin treatment”. Atherosclerosis 187 (1): 116–122.doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.08.025. PMID 16458316.

  30. ^ Jacobson, EL (2007). “Niacin”. Linus Pauling Institute. Retrieved 2008-03-31.

  31. ^ Zhang Y, Schmidt RJ, Foxworthy P, et al. (2005). “Niacin mediates lipolysis in adipose tissue through its G-protein coupled receptor HM74A”. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 334 (2): 729–32.doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.06.141. PMID 16018973.

  32. ^ Zellner C, Pullinger CR, Aouizerat BE, et al. (2005). “Variations in human HM74 (GPR109B) and HM74A (GPR109A) niacin receptors”.Hum. Mutat. 25 (1): 18–21. doi:10.1002/humu.20121.PMID 15580557.

  33. ^ Weidel, H (1873). “Zur Kenntniss des Nicotins”. Justus Liebig’s Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 165 (2): 330–349.doi:10.1002/jlac.18731650212.

  34. ^ Samuel M. McElvain (1941), “Nicotinic Acid”, Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 1: 385

  35. ^ Elvehjem, C.A.; Madden, R.J.; Strongandd, F.M.. “W. WOOLLEY 1938 The isolation and identification of the anti-blacktongue factor J”.J. Biol. Chem 123: 137.

  36. ^ LAGUNA J, CARPENTER KJ (September 1951). “Raw versus processed corn in niacin-deficient diets”. J. Nutr. 45 (1): 21–8.PMID 14880960.

  37. ^ “Vitamin B3″. University of Maryland Medical Center. 2002-01-04. Retrieved 2008-03-31.

  38. ^ Paolini JF, Bays HE, Ballantyne CM, et al. (November 2008). “Extended-release niacin/laropiprant: reducing niacin-induced flushing to better realize the benefit of niacin in improving cardiovascular risk factors”. Cardiol Clin 26 (4): 547–60.doi:10.1016/j.ccl.2008.06.007.PMID 19031552.

Guarana Research and Studies

  1. ^ Johannes, Laura (March 2, 2010). “Can a Caffeine-Packed Plant Give a Boost?”. The Wall Street Journal: p. D3.

  2. ^ Bempong DK, Houghton PJ, Steadman K (1993). “The xanthine content of guarana and its preparations”. Int. J. Pharmacog. 31 (3): 175–81.doi:10.3109/13880209309082937. ISSN 0925-1618.

  3. ^ Ashihara H, Sano H, Crozier A (February 2008). “Caffeine and related purine alkaloids: biosynthesis, catabolism, function and genetic engineering”. Phytochemistry 69 (4): 841–56. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.10.029. PMID18068204.

  4. ^ Cultural History of Plants. New York: Routledge. 2004. p. 179.

  5. ^ “guarana”. Merriam Webster. Retrieved 2007-09-18.

  6. ^ Beck HT (2004). “10 Caffeine, Alcohol, and Sweeteners”. Cultural History of Plants. New York: Routledge. p. 179. ISBN 978-0415927468.

  7. ^ a b Weinberg BA, Bealer BK (2001). The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World’s Most Popular Drug. New York: Routledge. pp. 259–60. ISBN 978-0415927239.

  8. ^ a b “Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases”. 2007-09-18. OCLC 41920916. Retrieved 2007-09-18.

  9. ^ a b Duke JA (1992). Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0849336720. OCLC 25874249.

  10. ^ “Caffeine”. Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved 2007-09-19.

  11. ^ Balentine D. A., Harbowy M. E. and Graham H. N. (1998). “Tea: the Plant and its Manufacture; Chemistry and Consumption of the Beverage”. In G Spiller. Caffeine. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-2647-9.

  12. ^ Carlson M, Thompson RD (July-August 1998). “Liquid chromatographic determination of methylxanthines and catechins in herbal preparations containing guaraná”. Journal of AOAC International 81 (4): 691–701. PMID9680692.

  13. ^ Weinberg BA, Bealer BK (2001). The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World’s Most Popular Drug. New York: Routledge. pp. 230.ISBN978-0415927239.

  14. ^ Weinberg BA, Bealer BK (2001). The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World’s Most Popular Drug. New York: Routledge. pp. 192–3. ISBN 978-0415927239.

  15. ^ Moffett M, Deogun N (11 July 1999). “Guarana’s potent reputation makes consumers drink it up”. The Wall Street Journal (South Coast Today). Retrieved 2011-05-26.

  16. ^ “Guaraná Backus” (in Spanish). Backus and Johnston. Retrieved May 15, 2011.

  17. ^ “Guaraná Light” (in Spanish). Backus and Johnston. Retrieved May 15, 2011.

  18. ^ Espinola EB, Dias RF, Mattei R, Carlini EA (February 1997). “Pharmacological activity of Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) in laboratory animals”. J Ethnopharmacol 55 (3): 223–9. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(96)01506-1. PMID9080343.

  19. ^ Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, Milne AL, Scholey AB (January 2007). “A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-dose evaluation of the acute behavioral effects of guaraná in humans”. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 21 (1): 65–70. doi:10.1177/0269881106063815.PMID16533867.

  20. ^ “Energy Drinks” (PDF). University of California, Davis. April 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-18.

  21. ^ Anderson T, Foght J (2001). “Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients”. J Hum Nutr Diet 14 (3): 243. doi:10.1046/j.1365-277X.2001.00290.x. PMID 11424516.

  22. ^ Sale C, Harris RC, Delves S, Corbett J (May 2006). “Metabolic and physiological effects of ingesting extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana at rest and during treadmill walking in overweight males”. Int J Obes (Lond) 30 (5): 764–73. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803209.PMID16418760.

  23. ^ Bydlowski SP, D’Amico EA, Chamone DA (1991). “An aqueous extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) decreases platelet thromboxane synthesis”. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 24 (4): 421–4. ISSN 0100-879X. PMID 1823256.

  24. ^ Nicolaou KC et al. (1979). “Synthesis and biological properties of pinane-thromboxane A2, a selective inhibitor of coronary artery constriction, platelet aggregation, and thromboxane formation”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76 (6): 2566–70. doi:10.1073/pnas.76.6.2566.PMC 383648.PMID 288046.

  25. ^ Terpstra AH; Beynen AC; Everts H; Kocsis S; Katan MB; Zock PL (2002 May). “The decrease in body fat in mice fed conjugated linoleic acid is due to increases in energy expenditure and energy loss in the excreta”. J Nutr 132 (5): 940–5. PMID 11983818.


External links


Kola Nut or Cola Nut Research and Studies

  • Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) [Online Database].Species Records of Cola National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.

  • Burdock GA, Carabin, IG, Crincoli C (2009). Safety assessment of Kola Nut extract as a food ingredient. Food and Chemical Toxicology. [Epub ahead of print].

  • Jarvis, Gail (May 21, 2002). The Rise and Fall of Cocaine Cola. Retrieved on 2006-08-19.

  • Kim, Katherine, (2001). Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine

  • Mariama Bâ, “So Long a Letter”



  1. ^ Duke, James A. (2001). Handbook of Nuts
  2. ^ a b Cheek, Martin (2002). “Three new species of Cola (Sterculiaceae) from western Cameroon”. Kew Bulletin (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) 57 (2): 403.
  3. ^ Igbo insight guide to Enugu and Igboland’s Culture and Language, Kola Nut
  4. ^ Catherine Meyers. “How Natural Is Your Cola?”. Science NOW. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
  5. ^ FAMA Aina Adewale-Somadhi, Chief: (2004), “Practioner’s Handbook for the Ifa Professional”, Ile Orunmila Communications, pg 1
  6. ^ Epega, Afolabi A.: (2003), “Obi Divination”, Athelia Henrietta Press, pgs 1-2

External links

DMAE ( Dimethylethanolamine) Research And Studies

  1. ^ Sanders MW, Wright L, Tate L, Fairless G, Crowhurst L, Bruce NC, Walker AJ, Hembury GA, Shimizu S (September 2009). “Unexpected preferential dehydration of artemisinin in ionic liquids”. J. Phys. Chem. A 113 (38): 10143–45. doi:10.1021/jp906436e. PMID 19722599.
  2. ^ Ashford’s Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals, 3rd edition, 2011, ISBN: 978-0-9522674-3-0, page 3294
  3. ^ a b c Zahniser NR, Chou D, Hanin I (March 1977). “Is 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) indeed a precursor of brain acetylcholine? A gas chromatographic evaluation”. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 200 (3): 545–59. PMID 850128.
  4. ^ Dimpfel W, Wedekind W, Keplinger I (May 2003). “Efficacy of dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) containing vitamin-mineral drug combination on EEG patterns in the presence of different emotional states”. Eur. J. Med. Res. 8 (5): 183–91. PMID 12844472.
  5. ^ Knobel M (1974). “Approach to a combined pharmacologic therapy of childhood hyperkinesis”. Behav Neuropsychiatry 6 (1-12): 87–90.PMID4619768.
  6. ^ Cherkin A, Exkardt MJ (January 1977). “Effects of dimethylaminoethanol upon life-span and behavior of aged Japanese quail”. J Gerontol 32(1): 38–45. PMID 830732.



  • As a treatment for tardive dyskinesia
  • Haug BA, Holzgraefe M (1991). “Orofacial and respiratory tardive dyskinesia: potential side effects of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol)?”.Eur. Neurol. 31 (6): 423–5. doi:10.1159/000116708. PMID 1756771.



Research And Studies

  1. ^ Zeyner A, Harmeyer J (1999). “Metabolic functions of L-carnitine and its effects as feed additive in horses. A review”. Archiv Für Tierernährung 52(2): 115–38. PMID 10548966.
  2. ^ Longnus SL, Wambolt RB, Barr RL, Lopaschuk GD, Allard MF (October 2001). “Regulation of myocardial fatty acid oxidation by substrate supply”. American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology 281 (4): H1561–7. PMID 11557544.
  3. ^ Lysiak W, Lilly K, DiLisa F, Toth PP, Bieber LL (January 1988). “Quantitation of the effect of L-carnitine on the levels of acid-soluble short-chain acyl-CoA and CoASH in rat heart and liver mitochondria”. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 263 (3): 1151–6. PMID 3335535.
  4. ^ Kiens B (January 2006). “Skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in exercise and insulin resistance”. Physiological Reviews 86 (1): 205–43.doi:10.1152/physrev.00023.2004. PMID 16371598.
  5. ^ Lopaschuk GD, Gamble J (October 1994). “The 1993 Merck Frosst Award. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase: an important regulator of fatty acid oxidation in the heart”. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 72 (10): 1101–9. PMID 7882173.
  6. ^ Giancaterini A, De Gaetano A, Mingrone G, et al. (June 2000). “Acetyl-L-carnitine infusion increases glucose disposal in type 2 diabetic patients”.Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 49 (6): 704–8. doi:10.1053/meta.2000.6250. PMID 10877193.
  7. ^ Mingrone G, Greco AV, Capristo E, et al. (February 1999). “L-carnitine improves glucose disposal in type 2 diabetic patients”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 18 (1): 77–82. PMID 10067662.
  8. ^ Cao Y, Wang YX, Liu CJ, Wang LX, Han ZW, Wang CB (2009). “Comparison of pharmacokinetics of L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine after single oral administration of L-carnitine in healthy volunteers”. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 32 (1): E13–9.PMID 19178874.
  9. ^ Jane Higdon, Ph.D. (October 2002). L-Carnitine. Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University.
  10. ^ Hamilton JW, Li BU, Shug AL, Olsen WA (July 1986). “Carnitine transport in human intestinal biopsy specimens. Demonstration of an active transport system”. Gastroenterology 91 (1): 10–6. PMID 3710058.
  11. ^ Eder K, Felgner J, Becker K, Kluge H (January 2005). “Free and total carnitine concentrations in pig plasma after oral ingestion of various L-carnitine compounds”. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 75 (1): 3–9. doi:10.1024/0300-9831.75.1.3. PMID15830915.
  12. ^ Rebouche CJ (November 2004). “Kinetics, pharmacokinetics, and regulation of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine metabolism”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1033: 30–41. doi:10.1196/annals.1320.003. PMID15591001.
  13. ^ Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Greenhaff PL (June 2007). “New insights concerning the role of carnitine in the regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle”. The Journal of Physiology 581 (Pt 2): 431–44. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2006.125799. PMC 2075186.PMID17331998.
  14. ^ Barhwal K, Hota SK, Jain V, Prasad D, Singh SB, Ilavazhagan G (June 2009). “Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) prevents hypobaric hypoxia-induced spatial memory impairment through extracellular related kinase-mediated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 phosphorylation”.Neuroscience 161 (2): 501–14. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.02.086. PMID 19318118.
  15. ^ Al-Majed AA, Sayed-Ahmed MM, Al-Omar FA, Al-Yahya AA, Aleisa AM, Al-Shabanah OA (August 2006). “Carnitine esters prevent oxidative stress damage and energy depletion following transient forebrain ischaemia in the rat hippocampus”. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology 33 (8): 725–33. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1681.2006.04425.x. PMID 16895547.
  16. ^ Wilson AD, Hart A, Brännström T, Wiberg M, Terenghi G (2007). “Delayed acetyl-L-carnitine administration and its effect on sensory neuronal rescue after peripheral nerve injury”. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 60 (2): 114–8.doi:10.1016/j.bjps.2006.04.017.PMID 17223507.
  17. ^ Beal MF (2003). “Bioenergetic approaches for neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease”. Annals of Neurology 53 (Suppl 3): S39–47; discussion S47–8. doi:10.1002/ana.10479. PMID 12666097.
  18. ^ Hathcock JN, Shao A (October 2006). “Risk assessment for carnitine”. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 46 (1): 23–8.doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2006.06.007. PMID 16901595.
  19. ^ Claudio Teloken, Tulio Graziottin & Patrick E. Teloken (2007). “Oral Therapy for Peyroni’s Disease”. In Laurence A. Levine M.D. FACS. Peyronies Disease: A Guide to Clinical Management. Humana Press. ISBN 978-1-58829-614-6. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
  20. ^ Ruggenenti P, Cattaneo D, Loriga G, et al. (September 2009). “Ameliorating hypertension and insulin resistance in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk: effects of acetyl-L-carnitine therapy”. Hypertension 54 (3): 567–74.doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.132522.PMID 19620516.
  21. ^ Zhang Z, Zhao M, Li Q, Zhao H, Wang J, Li Y (January 2009). “Acetyl-l-carnitine inhibits TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance via AMPK pathway in rat skeletal muscle cells”. FEBS Letters 583 (2): 470–4. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2008.12.053. PMID 19121314.
  22. ^ Schroeder MA, Atherton HJ, Ball DR, Cole MA, Heather LC, Griffin JL, Clarke K, Radda GK, Tyler DJ. (August 2009). “Real-time assessment of Krebs cycle metabolism using hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy”. FASEB J. 23 (8): 2529–2538. doi:10.1096/fj.09-129171.PMC 2717776. PMID19329759.
  23. ^ Kotil K, Kirali M, Eras M, Bilge T, Uzun H. (April 2007). “Neuroprotective effects of acetyl-L-carnithine in experimental chronic compression neuropathy. A prospective, randomized and placebo-control trials.”. Turk Neurosurg. 17 (2): 67–77. PMID 17935020.


Other reviews


Bacopa monnieri


  1. ^ “Bacopa monnieri information from NPGS/GRIN”. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  2. ^ ”In north India, however, brāhmÄ« is commonly identified as Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban, which in Malayalam is known as muttil. It seems that this identification of brāhmÄ« as C. asiatica has been in use for long in northern India, as HÄ“mādri’s ‘Commentary on Aṣṭāṅgahá¹›dayaṃ (Ä€yuá¹›vÄ“darasāyanaṃ) treats maṇḍūkapaṛṇī (C. asiatica) as a synonym of brahmi.” Warrier, P K; V P K Nambiar, C Ramankutty, V.P.K. & Ramankutty, R Vasudevan Nair (1996). Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 Specie. Orient Blackswan. pp. 238.ISBN9788125003014.
  3. ^ Daniel, M. (2005). Medicinal plants: chemistry and properties. Science Publishers. pp. 225. ISBN 9781578083954.
  4. ^ Khare, C. P. (2003). Indian Herbal Remedies: Rational Western Therapy, Ayurvedic, and Other Traditional Usage, Botany. Springer. pp. 89.ISBN9783540010265.
  5. ^ a b c d Rajani, M., et al. “Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell) – A Medhya Rasaayana Drug of Ayurveda” in Ramawat, K. G., Ed. (2004).Biotechnology of Medicinal Plants: Vitalizer and Therapeutic Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers, Inc.
  6. ^ Ghosal. S, Bhattacharya SK (1980). “Anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera in an experimental study”. Phytomedicine 5: 133–148.
  7. ^ Morgan A, Stevens J”Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.” J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9 Authors:
  8. ^ C. Stough, J. Lloyd, J. Clarke, L. Downey, C. Hutchison, T. Rodgers, P. Nathan (2001). “The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects”. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 156 (4): 481–4. doi:10.1007/s002130100815.PMID11498727.
  9. ^ S. Roodenrys, D. Booth, S. Bulzomi, A. Phipps, C. Micallef, J. Smoker (2002). “Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on human memory”.Neuropsychopharmacology (Wollongong) 27 (2): 279. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(01)00419-5. PMID 12093601.
  10. ^ Stough C, Downey LA, Lloyd J et al. (2008). “Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa Monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.” Phytother Res. 22:1629-1634.
  11. ^ a b Dhanasekaran M, Tharakan B, Holcomb LA et al. (2007). “Neuroprotective mechanisms of ayurvedic antidementia botanical Bacopa monniera.” Phytother Res. 21:965-969.
  12. ^ Saraf, K., et al. (2008). Bacopa monnieri ameliorates amnesic effects of diazepam qualifying behavioral- molecular partitioning. Neuroscience. doi=10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.05.043
  13. ^ Roodenrys, Steven Ph.D., et al.; Booth, D; Bulzomi, S; Phipps, A; Micallef, C; Smoker, J (2002). “Chronic Effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on Human Memory”. Neuropsychopharmacology 27 (2): 279–281. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(01)00419-5. PMID 12093601.
  14. ^ Nathan, PJ, et al.; Tanner, S; Lloyd, J; Harrison, B; Curran, L; Oliver, C; Stough, C (2004). “Effects of a combined extract of Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in healthy humans”. Hum. Psychopharmacol. 19 (2): 91–96. doi:10.1002/hup.544. PMID14994318.
  15. ^ Morgan A, Stevens J “Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial” Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine – New York 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9.
  16. ^ Ayyappan S.R., Srikumar R., Thangaraj R., Jegadeesh R., Hariprasath L. ,”Antifungal activity of Bacopa monniera against dermatophytic fungus”,Biomedicine 2011 31:1 (74-77)
  17. ^ Anbarsi, K., et al. (2006). Effect of bacoside A on brain antioxidant status in cigarette smoke exposed rats. Life Science 78:12.
  18. ^ Pravina K, Ravindra KR, Goudar KS et al. (2007). Safety evaluation of BacoMind in healthy volunteers: a phase I study.” Phytomedicine. 14:301-308.
  19. ^ McCutcheon & Schnoor 2003, Phytoremediation. New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, page 898.
  20. ^ Gurta et al. 1994


External links

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita, also known as M. balsamea )
Research and Studies

  1. ^ WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants: Volume 2. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2002. ISBN 92-4-154537-2. Retrieved October 29, 2010.[page needed]
  2. ^ The Complete Illustrated Book of Herbs, Alex Frampton, The Reader’s Digest Association, 2009
  3. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita
  4. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita
  5. ^ Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species Plantarum 2: 576–577.
  6. ^ Harley, R. M. (1975). Mentha L. In: Stace, C. A., ed. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387.
  7. ^ a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.[page needed]
  8. ^ a b Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2[page needed]
  9. ^ “List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs”. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  10. ^ a b Moss, Mark; Hewitt, Steven; Moss, Lucy; Wesnes, Kieth (2008). “Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang”. The International journal of neuroscience 118 (1): 59–77. doi:10.1080/00207450601042094.PMID18041606. “Peppermint was found to enhance memory whereas ylang-ylang impaired it, and lengthened processing speed. In terms of subjective mood peppermint increased alertness and ylang-ylang decreased it, but significantly increased calmness”.
  11. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines, 4th Edition, Thomson Healthcare, page 640. ISBN 978-1563636783
  12. ^ Leung, A. Y. (1980). Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients used in food, drugs and cosmetics. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 231.
  13. ^ Cappello, G; Spezzaferro, M; Grossi, L; Manzoli, L; Marzio, L (2007). “Peppermint oil (Mintoil®) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial”. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–6.doi:10.1016/j.dld.2007.02.006. PMID 17420159.
  14. ^ Merat, Shahin; Khalili, Shadi; Mostajabi, Pardise; Ghorbani, Anahita; Ansari, Reza; Malekzadeh, Reza (2010). “The effect of enteric-coated, delayed-release peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome”. Digestive diseases and sciences 55 (5): 1385–90.doi:10.1007/s10620-009-0854-9. PMID 19507027.
  15. ^ “How Peppermint Helps to Relieve Irritable Bowel Syndrome”.ScienceDaily. April 20, 2011.
  16. ^ “Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome”. Bandolier.
  17. ^ Baliga, M. S.; Rao, S. (2010). “Radioprotective potential of mint: A brief review”. J Cancer Res Ther. 6 (3): 255–262.
  18. ^ Robert Irving Krieger (2001). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology: Principles. Academic Press. pp. 823. ISBN 9780124262607. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
  19. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita
  20. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita
  21. ^ a b Akdogan, M; Ozguner, M; Aydin, G; Gokalp, O (2004). “Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita Labiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats”.Human & experimental toxicology 23 (1): 21–8.doi:10.1191/0960327104ht412oa. PMID 15027812.
  22. ^ Sharma, A; Sharma, MK; Kumar, M (2007). “Protective effect of Mentha piperita against arsenic-induced toxicity in liver of Swiss albino mice.”. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology 100 (4): 249–57. doi:10.1111/j.1742-7843.2006.00030.x.PMID 17371529.
  23. ^ Akdogan, M; Kilinç, I; Oncu, M; Karaoz, E; Delibas, N (2003). “Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. and Mentha spicata L. on kidney tissue in rats”. Human & experimental toxicology 22 (4): 213–9.doi:10.1191/0960327103ht332oa. PMID12755472.
  24. ^ Akdogan, M; Gultekin, F; Yontem, M (2004). “Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats”. Toxicology and industrial health 20 (6–10): 119–22.doi:10.1191/0748233704th206oa. PMID 15941008.
  25. ^ Farley, Derek R.; Howland, Valerie (1980). “The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143–51.doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740311104.
  26. ^ Edwards, J.; Bienvenu, F.E. (1999). Australasian Plant Pathology28 (3): 212–24. doi:10.1071/AP99036.
  27. ^ Adamovic, D.S. et al.. “Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L.)”. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
  28. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. Chocolate Mint
  29. ^ a b c d e Stanev, S.; V.D. Zheljazkov. “Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars, populations, and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)”. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
  30. ^ a b c Jullien, Frédéric; Diemer, Florence; Colson, Monique; Faure, Olivier (1998). Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153–9.doi:10.1023/A:1006185103897.
  31. ^ International Organization for Standardization. “ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments — Botanical nomenclature”. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
  32. ^ International Organization for Standardization. “ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) — Specification”. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  33. ^ International Organization for Standardization. “ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.)”. Retrieved 7 June 2009.

Holly Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum (also tulsi, tulasī, or Holy Basil)
Research and Studies

  1. ^ Staples, George; Michael S. Kristiansen (1999). Ethnic Culinary Herbs. University of Hawaii Press. p. 73. ISBN 9780824820947.
  2. ^ Warrier, P K (1995). Indian Medicinal Plants. Orient Longman. p. 168. ISBN0863115519.
  3. ^ Kothari, S K; Bhattacharya, A K, et al. (November/December 2005). “Volatile Constituents in Oil from Different Plant Parts of Methyl Eugenol-Rich Ocimum tenuiflorum L.f. (syn. O. sanctum L.) Grown in South India”. Journal of Essential Oil Research: JEOR. Retrieved 2008-09-05.
  4. ^ Staples, ibid.
  5. ^ Indian J Exp Biol. 1999 Mar;37(3):248-52.
  6. ^ Prakash P, Gupta N. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review.
  7. ^ Effect of Ocimum sanctum Leaf Powder on Blood Lipoproteins, Glycated Proteins and Total Amino Acids in Patients with Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine. V. RAI MSC, U. V. MANI MSC PHD FICN AND U. M. IYER MSC PHD. Volume 7, Number 2 / June 1, 1997. p. 113 – 118
  8. ^ Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Effect of Ocimum Sanctum,. Jyoti Sethi, Sushma Sood, Shashi Seth, and Anjana Talwar. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2004, 19 (2) 152-155.
  9. ^ Devi, P. Uma; Ganasoundari, A.. Modulation of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes by Ocimum sanctum and its role in protection against radiation injury. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, v.37, n.3, 1999. March,:262-268.
  10. ^ Sharma, P; Kulshreshtha, S; Sharma, A L. Anti-cataract activity of Ocimum sanctum on experimental cataract. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, v.30, n.1, 1998:16-20
  11. ^ Suanarunsawat T, Boonnak T, Na Ayutthaya WD, Thirawarapan S.,”Anti-hyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil in rats fed a high fat diet.” J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;21(4):387-400
  12. ^ Mondal S., Varma S., Bamola V.D., Naik S.N., Mirdha B.R., Padhi M.M., Mehta N., Mahapatra S.C. “Double-blinded randomized controlled trial for immunomodulatory effects of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract on healthy volunteers” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2011
  13. ^ a b Kuhn, Merrily; David Winston (2007). Winston & Kuhn’s Herbal Therapy & Supplements: A Scientific and Traditional Approach. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 260. ISBN 9781582554624.
  14. ^ NIIR Board, National Institute of Industrial Research (India) (2004). Compendium of Medicinal Plants. 2004. National Institute of Industrial Research. p. 320. ISBN 9788186623800.
  15. ^ Botanical Pathways article with clinical trials details
  16. ^ Puri, Harbans Singh (2002). Rasayana: Ayurvedic Herbs for Longevity and Rejuvenation. CRC Press. pp. 272–280. ISBN 9780415284899.
  17. ^ Biswas, N. P.; Biswas, A. K.. “Evaluation of some leaf dusts as grain protectant against rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Linn.).”. Environment and Ecology (Vol. 23) ((No. 3) 2005): pp. 485–488.
  18. ^
  19. ^ Claus, Peter J.; Sarah Diamond, Margaret Ann Mills (2003). South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 619.ISBN9780415939195.
  20. ^ a b Simoons, Frederick J. (1998). Plants of life, plants of death. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 7–40. ISBN 9780299159047.
  21. ^ Brahma vaivarta Purana 4.67.65
  22. ^ Chatterjee, Gautam (2001). Sacred Hindu Symbols. Abhinav Publications. pp. 93. ISBN 9788170173977.
  23. ^ Simoons, pp. 17-18.
  24. ^ Flood, Gavin D. (2001). The Blackwell companion to Hinduism. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 331. ISBN 9780631215356.
  25. ^ a b Gernot Katzer’s Spice Pages

Green tea (Camellia sinensis)
Research And Studies

  1. ^ The Tea Guardian. “Green Teas: A (very) Brief History”. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  2. ^ The Tea Guardian. “Quality Basics 1: Various Plants, Various Qualities”. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  3. ^ The Tea Guardian. “Tea & Cardiovascular Health”. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  4. ^ “Green Tea’s Cancer-Fighting Allure Becomes More Potent”.
  5. ^ Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, Girardier L, Mensi N, Fathi M, Chantre P, Vandermander J (1999). “Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70 (6): 1040–5.PMID 10584049.
  6. ^ a b USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods, Release 2.1 (2007)
  7. ^ The Tea Guardian. “Health Benefits of Tea”. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  8. ^ Heiss, Mary Lou; Heiss, Robert J. (2007). The story of tea: a cultural history and drinking guide. Ten Speed Press. pp. 179–185.ISBN 1-58008-745-0.
  9. ^ Illustrated explanation of the process for producing gyokuro tea
  10. ^ About the effects of the shading process, and the components of this tea compared to others
  11. ^ ”CURRENT SITUATION AND MEDIUM-TERM OUTLOOK”. INTERGOVERNMENTAL GROUP ON TEA, UN Food and Agriculture Organization. May 2008. p. 9.
  12. ^ a b Cabrera C, Artacho R, Giménez R (April 2006). “Beneficial effects of green tea–a review”. J Am Coll Nutr 25 (2): 79–99.PMID 16582024.
  13. ^ Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, et al. (June 2003). “Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial”. Arch. Intern. Med. 163 (12): 1448–53.doi:10.1001/archinte.163.12.1448. PMID12824094.
  14. ^ Venables, Michelle C; Venables, Michelle C; Hulston, Carl J; Cox, Hannah R ; Jeukendrup, Asker E (March 2008). “Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans”.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87 (3): 778–784.PMID 18326618. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
  15. ^ Emad Al-Dujaili, Jon-Paul Bradley, Suzana Almoosawi & Lorna Fyfe (2009). “Effects of green tea consumption on blood pressure, total cholesterol, body weight and fat in healthy volunteers”. Endocrine Abstracts 20: P470.
  16. ^ “Israeli researchers show that green tea has rejuvenating effect on damaged brain cells | health”. 2007-10-14. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  17. ^ GradiÅ¡ar et al., (2007) Green Tea Catechins Inhibit Bacterial DNA Gyrase by Interaction with Its ATP Binding Site
  18. ^ Zhang, M; Huang, J; Xie, X; Holman, CD (2009). “Dietary intakes of mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women.”. International Journal of Cancer 124 (6): 1404–8. doi:10.1002/ijc.24047. PMID 19048616.
  19. ^ Chu, KO; Kai On Chu; Kwok Ping Chan; Chi Chiu Wang; Ching Yan Chu; Wai Ying Li; Kwong Wai Choy; Michael Scott Rogers; Chi Pui Pan (February 2010). “Green Tea Catechins and Their Oxidative Protection in the Rat Eye.”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58 (3): 1523–1534. doi:10.1021/jf9032602.PMID 20085274. Retrieved 2010-02-19.
  20. ^ The History of Tea – Tea Bags and Makers
  21. ^ Sartippour MR, Pietras R, Marquez-Garban DC, et al. (December 2006). “The combination of green tea and tamoxifen is effective against breast cancer”. Carcinogenesis 27 (12): 2424–33.doi:10.1093/carcin/bgl066. PMID16785249.
  22. ^ BBC news – 17 March 2009 – green tea may have the power to ward off breast cancer
  23. ^ Sueoka N, Suganuma M, Sueoka E, et al. (April 2001). “A new function of green tea: prevention of lifestyle-related diseases”. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 928: 274–80. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05656.x. PMID 11795518.
  24. ^ “Celestial Seasonings”. Celestial Seasonings. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  25. ^ ACS :: Green Tea
  26. ^ Tea: A Story of Serendipity
  27. ^ Qualified health claim definition – Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms
  28. ^ US FDA/CFSAN — Letter Responding to Health Claim Petition dated January 27, 2004: Green Tea and Reduced Risk of Cancer Health Claim (Docket number 2004Q-0083)
  29. ^ US FDA/CFSAN — Qualified Health Claims: Letter of Denial — Green Tea and Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Disease (Docket No. 2005Q-0297)
  30. ^ CDER New Molecular Entity (NME) Drug and New Biologic Approvals in Calendar Year 2006
  31. ^ Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Product List: 10/2006
  32. ^ FDA approves kunecatechins for the topical treatment of external genital and perianal warts
  33. ^ Kuriyama S, Shimazu T, Ohmori K, et al. (September 2006). “Green tea consumption and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in Japan: the Ohsaki study”. JAMA 296(10): 1255–65. doi:10.1001/jama.296.10.1255. PMID 16968850.
  34. ^ Article in the Denver Post
  35. ^ Kuriyama S, Hozawa A, Ohmori K, et al. (February 2006). “Green tea consumption and cognitive function: a cross-sectional study from the Tsurugaya Project 1″. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83 (2): 355–61.PMID 16469995.
  36. ^ Green tea could protect against Alzheimer’s
  37. ^ Green Tea and the “Asian Paradox”
  38. ^ Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H (January 2007). “L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses”. Biol Psychol 74 (1): 39–45.doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.006. PMID 16930802.
  39. ^ Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S, et al. (January 2005). “Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81 (1): 122–9. PMID 15640470.
  40. ^ “Studies: Green Tea May Help Prolong Life”. CBS News. December 4, 2006.
  41. ^ Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, et al. (December 1999). “Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans”.Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70 (6): 1040–5. PMID 10584049.
  42. ^ Green Tea Blocks HIV in Test Tubes
  43. ^ Rodríguez-Caso C, Rodríguez-Agudo D, Sánchez-Jiménez F, Medina MA (August 2003). “Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate is an inhibitor of mammalian histidine decarboxylase”. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 60 (8): 1760–3. doi:10.1007/s00018-003-3135-3.PMID 14521154.
  44. ^ Lambert JD, Sang S, Yang CS (April 2007). “Possible controversy over dietary polyphenols: benefits vs risks”. Chem. Res. Toxicol.20 (4): 583–5. doi:10.1021/tx7000515. PMID 17362033.
  45. ^ Strick et al.; Strissel, PL; Borgers, S; Smith, SL; Rowley, JD (2000).“Dietary bioflavonoids induce cleavage in the MLL gene and may contribute to infant leukemia.”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (9): 4790–4795. doi:10.1073/pnas.070061297. PMC 18311.PMID 10758153.
  46. ^ Kaijun Niu et al (2009). “Green tea consumption is associated with depressive symptoms in the elderly”. Am J Clin Nutr. 90 (6): 1615–22.doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28216. PMID 19828710.
  47. ^ Golden, E.; Lam, PY; Kardosh, A; Gaffney, KJ; Cadenas, E; Louie, SG; Petasis, NA; Chen, TC et al. (2009). “Green tea polyphenols block the anticancer effects of bortezomib and other boronic acid-based proteasome inhibitors.”. Blood 113 (23): 5927–5937.doi:10.1182/blood-2008-07-171389. PMID 19190249.
  48. ^ Neith, Katie. “Green tea blocks benefits of cancer drug, study finds”. Retrieved 2009-02-04.
  49. ^ ~ May 2006 No.204 ~. “Drinking Green Tea a Way to Avoid Caffeine?”. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  50. ^
  51. ^ “Knowledge Center – Caffeine and Tea”. Stash Tea. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  52. ^ Sarma DN, Barrett ML, Chavez ML, et al. (2008). “Safety of green tea extracts : a systematic review by the US Pharmacopeia”. Drug Saf31 (6): 469–84. doi:10.2165/00002018-200831060-00003.PMID 18484782.
  53. ^ Wu, Kuei-Meng; Yao, Jiaqing; Boring, Daniel (2011). “Green Tea Extract-Induced Lethal Toxicity in Fasted but Not in Nonfasted Dogs”. International Journal of Toxicology 30 (1): 19–20.doi:10.1177/1091581810387445. PMID21098339. Retrieved 03/14/2011.
  54. ^ “日本からの緑茶に基準超えるセシウムパリの空港で検出.”(Japanese) Asahi Shimbun. 2011-06-18. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
  55. ^ “静岡知事「飲用茶にすれば問題ない」 仏での検出受け.”(Japanese) Asahi Shimbun. 2011-06-18. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
  56. ^ “蓮舫内閣府特命担当大臣記者会見要旨(平成23年6月3日(金)).” (Japanese) Consumer Affairs Agency. 2011-06-03. Retrieved 2011-06-19.



  • Master Lam Kam Cheun et al. (2002). The way of tea. Gaia Books. ISBN1856751430.
  • John C, Evans, Tea in China: The History of China’s National Drink. Greenwood Press, 1992.

ISBN 0-313-28049-5

External links

Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)
Research And Studies


  1. ^ Mustoe, G.E. (2002). “Eocene Ginkgo leaf fossils from the Pacific Northwest”. Canadian Journal of Botany 80 (10): 1078–1087.doi:10.1139/b02-097.
  2. ^ Sun (1998). ‘Ginkgo biloba’. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Listed as Endangered (EN B1+2c v2.3)
  3. ^ Royer et al., pp. 86-87
  4. ^ a b Ginkgoales: More on Morphology
  5. ^ Raven, Peter H.; Ray F. Evert; Susan E. Eichhorn (2005). Biology of Plants (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. pp. 429–430.ISBN0716710072.
  6. ^ Plotnik, Arthur (2000). The Urban Tree Book: An Uncommon Field Guide for City and Town (1st ed.). New York: Three Rivers Press. pp. 202. ISBN 0-8129-3103-3.
  7. ^ a b Laboratory IX — Ginkgo, Cordaites, and the Conifers
  8. ^ History of Discovery of Spermatozoids In Ginkgo biloba and Cycas revoluta
  9. ^ Holt, B. F.; Rothwell, G. W. (1997). “Is Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) Really an Oviparous Plant?”. American Journal of Botany 84 (6): 870–872. doi:10.2307/2445823. JSTOR 2445823.
  10. ^ Shen, L; Chen, X-Y; Zhang, X; Li, Y-Y; Fu, C-X; Qiu, Y-X (2004). “Genetic variation of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) based on cpDNA PCR-RFLPs: inference of glacial refugia”. Heredity 94 (4): 396–401. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800616. PMID 15536482.
  11. ^ a b Fu, Liguo; Li, Nan; Mill, Robert R. (1999). “Ginkgo biloba”. In Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P.H.; Hong, D.Y.. Flora of China. 4. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. p. 8. Retrieved 31 March 2008.
  12. ^ Whetstone, R. David (2006). “Ginkgo biloba”. In Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America. 2. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  13. ^ Simpson DP (1979). Cassell’s Latin Dictionary (5 ed.). London: Cassell Ltd.. pp. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.
  14. ^ Chandler, Brian (2000). “Ginkgo – origins”. Ginkgo pages. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
  15. ^ Zhou, Zhiyan; Zheng, Shaolin (2003). “Palaeobiology: The missing link in Ginkgo evolution”. Nature 423 (6942): 821–2.doi:10.1038/423821a. PMID12815417.
  16. ^ Julie Jalalpour, Matt Malkin, Peter Poon, Liz Rehrmann, Jerry Yu (1997). “Ginkgoales: Fossil Record”. University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  17. ^ Faculty of languages and cultures, Kyushu University Japan
  18. ^ Royer et al., p.84
  19. ^ Royer et al., p.85
  20. ^ a b Royer et al., p.91
  21. ^ Royer et al., p.87
  22. ^ Royer et al., p.92
  23. ^ Royer et al., p.93
  24. ^ Gilman, Edward F. and Dennis G. Watson (1993). “Ginkgo biloba’Autumn Gold’” (PDF). US Forest Service. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
  25. ^ Boland, Timothy, Laura E. Coit, Marty Hair (2002). Michigan Gardener’s Guide. Cool Springs Press. ISBN 1930604203.
  26. ^ “Examples of Plants with Insect and Disease Tolerance”. SULIS – Sustainable Urban Landscape Information Series. University of Minnesota. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
  27. ^ a b Ginkgo Seed Poisoning. PEDIATRICS Vol. 109 No. 2 February 2002, pp. 325-327 [1]
  28. ^ Lepoittevin, J. -P.; Benezra, C.; Asakawa, Y. (1989). “Allergic contact dermatitis to Ginkgo biloba L.: relationship with urushiol”. Archives of Dermatological Research 281 (4): 227–30.doi:10.1007/BF00431055. PMID2774654.
  29. ^ a b Schötz, Karl (2004). “Quantification of allergenic urushiols in extracts ofGinkgo biloba leaves, in simple one-step extracts and refined manufactured material(EGb 761)”. Phytochemical Analysis15 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1002/pca.733. PMID 14979519.
  30. ^ a b Weinmann, S; Roll, S; Schwarzbach, C; Vauth, C; Willich, SN (2010). “Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis”. BMC geriatrics 10: 14. doi:10.1186/1471-2318-10-14. PMC 2846949. PMID20236541.
  31. ^ Dekosky, S. T.; Williamson, J. D.; Fitzpatrick, A. L.; Kronmal, R. A.; Ives, D. G.; Saxton, J. A.; Lopez, O. L.; Burke, G. et al. (2008). “Ginkgo biloba for Prevention of Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial”.JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 300 (19): 2253–62. doi:10.1001/jama.2008.683. PMC 2823569.PMID 19017911.
  32. ^ a b Snitz, B. E.; O’Meara, E. S.; Carlson, M. C.; Arnold, A. M.; Ives, D. G.; Rapp, S. R.; Saxton, J.; Lopez, O. L. et al. (2009). “Ginkgo biloba for Preventing Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: A Randomized Trial”. JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 302(24): 2663–70. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1913.
  33. ^ Mahadevan, S.; Park, Y. (2007). “Multifaceted Therapeutic Benefits of Ginkgo biloba L.: Chemistry, Efficacy, Safety, and Uses”. Journal of Food Science 73 (1): R14–9. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00597.x. PMID 18211362.
  34. ^ Rabin, Roni Caryn (November 18, 2008). “Ginkgo biloba Ineffective Against Dementia, Researchers Find”. The New York Times. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
  35. ^ Koerner, Brendan I.. “Ginkgo Biloba? Forget About It.”. Slate. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
  36. ^
  37. ^ Elsabagh, Sarah; Hartley, David E.; Ali, Osama; Williamson, Elizabeth M.; File, Sandra E. (2005). “Differential cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba after acute and chronic treatment in healthy young volunteers”. Psychopharmacology 179 (2): 437–46.doi:10.1007/s00213-005-2206-6. PMID 15739076.
  38. ^ BBC News: Herbal remedies “boost brain power”
  39. ^ Kennedy, David O.; Scholey, Andrew B.; Wesnes, Keith A. (2000). “The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers”. Psychopharmacology151 (4): 416–23. doi:10.1007/s002130000501. PMID 11026748.
  40. ^
  41. ^ Ginkgo Extract Has Multiple Actions on Alzheimer SymptomsNewswise, Retrieved on August 25, 2008.
  42. ^ Mazza, M.; Capuano, A.; Bria, P.; Mazza, S. (2006). “Ginkgo biloba and donepezil: a comparison in the treatment of Alzheimer’s dementia in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study”.European Journal of Neurology 13 (9): 981–5. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01409.x. PMID16930364.
  43. ^ McCarney R, Fisher P, Iliffe S, van Haselen R, Griffin M, van der Meulen J, Warner J (2008). “Ginkgo biloba for mild to moderate dementia in a community setting: a pragmatic, randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.”. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry23 (12): 1222-30. doi:10.1002/gps.2055. PMID 18537221.
  44. ^ “Ginkgo ‘does not treat dementia’”. BBC News. June 16, 2008.
  45. ^ Ihl R, Bachinskaya N, Korczyn AD, Vakhapova V, Tribanek M, Hoerr R, Napryeyenko O (2010). “Efficacy and safety of a once-daily formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia with neuropsychiatric features: a randomized controlled trial.”. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. PMID 21140383.
  46. ^ Smith, P; MacLennan, K; Darlington, CL (1996). “The neuroprotective properties of the Ginkgo biloba leaf: a review of the possible relationship to platelet-activating factor (PAF)”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 50 (3): 131–9. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(96)01379-7. PMID8691847.
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^ DeFeudis FV. Ginkgo biloba extract (egb 761): pharmacological activities and clinical applications. Paris, Elsevier, Editions Scientifiques, 1991:1187
  50. ^ Kade, F.; Miller, W. (1993). “Dose-dependent effects of Ginkgo biloba extraction on cerebral, mental and physical efficiency: a placebo controlled double blind study”. British journal of clinical research 4: 97–103.
  51. ^ a b Lovera, J; Bagert, B; Smoot, K; Morris, CD; Frank, R; Bogardus, K; Wild, K; Oken, B et al. (2007). “2006 ACTRIMS ABSTRACTS: Biomarkers in MS/Basic and clinical issues in multiple sclerosis research ACTRIMS 11th annual meeting, October 8, 2006, Chicago, Illinois”. Multiple Sclerosis 13 (3): 376–85.doi:10.1177/1352458506071213. PMID 17439907.
  52. ^ Parsad, D.; Pandhi, R.; Juneja, A. (2003). “Effectiveness of oral Ginkgo biloba in treating limited, slowly spreading vitiligo”. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 28 (3): 285–7. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2230.2003.01207.x. PMID12780716.
  53. ^ Szczurko, O; Shear N, Taddio A, Boon H (15). “Ginkgo biloba for the treatment of Vitiligo vulgaris: an Open Label Pilot Clinical Trial”.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11: 21.doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-21. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
  54. ^ Jiang, Xuemin; Williams, Kenneth M.; Liauw, Winston S.; Ammit, Alaina J.; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Duke, Colin C.; Day, Richard O.; McLachlan, Andrew J. (2005). “Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects”. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 59 (4): 425–32.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02322.x. PMC1884814.PMID 15801937.
  55. ^ Ernst E, Canter PH, Coon JT (2005). “Does ginkgo biloba increase the risk of bleeding? A systematic review of case reports”. Perfusion18: 52–56.[verification needed]
  56. ^ “MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.)”. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
  57. ^ a b “Ginkgo biloba”. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
  58. ^ Complete Ginkgo information from




External links


Rhodiola rosea (Golden Root, Roseroot, Aaron’s Rod)

Rhodiola Research and Studies

  1. ^ “Rhodiola rosea – Plants For A Future database report”. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
  2. ^ Shevtsov VA, Zholus BI, Shervarly VI, et al. (Mar 2003). “A randomized trial of two different doses of Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work”.Phytomedicine 10 (2-3): 95–105.doi:10.1078/094471103321659780. PMID 12725561.
  3. ^ Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, Gabrielian E, Wikman G, Wagner H (Oct 2000). “Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue—a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty”. Phytomedicine 7 (5): 365–71.PMID 11081987.
  4. ^ Ha Z, Zhu Y, Zhang X, et al. (Sep 2002). “[The effect of rhodiola and acetazolamide on the sleep architecture and blood oxygen saturation in men living at high altitude]” (in Chinese). Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 25 (9): 527–30. PMID 12423559.
  5. ^ Gregory S. Kelly, ND, (2001). “Rhodiola rosea: a possible plant adaptogen.”. Alternative Medicine Review 6 (3): 293–302.PMID 11410073.
  6. ^ Wiegant FA, Surinova S, Ytsma E, Langelaar-Makkinje M, Wikman G, Post JA (Jun 2008). “Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans”. Biogerontology 10 (1): 27–42.doi:10.1007/s10522-008-9151-9. PMID 18536978.
  7. ^ Mattioli L, Funari C, Perfumi M (May 2008). “Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on behavioural and physiological alterations induced by chronic mild stress in female rats”. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford) 23 (2): 130–42.doi:10.1177/0269881108089872. PMID18515456.
  8. ^ a b van Diermen, 2009 Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots.
  9. ^ Kucinskaite A, Briedis V, Savickas A (2004). “[Experimental analysis of therapeutic properties of Rhodiola rosea L. and its possible application in medicine"] (in Lithuanian). Medicina (Kaunas) 40 (7): 614–9. PMID 15252224.
  10. ^ Mao Y, Li Y, Yao N (Nov 2007). “Simultaneous determination of salidroside and tyrosol in extracts of Rhodiola L. by microwave assisted extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography”. J Pharm Biomed Anal 45 (3): 510–5.doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2007.05.031. PMID17628386.
  11. ^ Panossian A, Nikoyan N, Ohanyan N, et al. (Jan 2008). “Comparative study of Rhodiola preparations on behavioral despair of rats”. Phytomedicine 15 (1-2): 84–91.doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2007.10.003. PMID 18054474.
  12. ^ Boudet AM (2007). “Evolution and current status of research in phenolic compounds”. Phytochemistry 68 (22-24): 2722–35.doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.06.012. PMID 17643453.
  13. ^ Yousef GG, Grace MH, Cheng DM, Belolipov IV, Raskin I, Lila MA (Nov 2006). “Comparative phytochemical characterization of three Rhodiola species”. Phytochemistry 67 (21): 2380–91.doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.07.026. PMID 16956631.
  14. ^ Liu Q, Liu ZL, Tian X (Feb 2008). “[Phenolic components from Rhodiola dumulosa]” (in Chinese). Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 33(4): 411–3.PMID18533499.
  15. ^ Perfumi M, Mattioli L (Jan 2007). “Adaptogenic and central nervous system effects of single doses of 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside Rhodiola rosea L. extract in mice”. Phytother Res 21 (1): 37–43.doi:10.1002/ptr.2013. PMID17072830.
  16. ^ Darbinyan V, Aslanyan G, Amroyan E, Gabrielyan E, Malmström C, Panossian A (2007). “Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract in the treatment of mild to moderate depression”. Nord J Psychiatry 61 (5): 343–8. doi:10.1080/08039480701643290. PMID 17990195.
  17. ^ Effect of Rodiola on level of NO and NOS in cultured rats penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cell and artery endothelium cell Kong X., Shi F., Chen Y., Lu H., Yao M., Hu M. Chinese Journal of Andrology 2007 21:10 (6-11)
  18. ^ De Bock K, Eijnde BO, Ramaekers M, Hespel P (Jun 2004). “Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance”. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 14 (3): 298–307.PMID 15256690.
  19. ^ Walker TB, Altobelli SA, Caprihan A, Robergs RA (Aug 2007). “Failure of Rhodiola rosea to alter skeletal muscle phosphate kinetics in trained men”. Metab Clin Exp. 56 (8): 1111–7.doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2007.04.004. PMID17618958.
  20. ^ Screening of Korean plants against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease Min B.S., Bae K.H., Kim Y.H., Miyashiro H., Hattori M., Shimotohno K. Phytotherapy Research 1999 13:8 (680-682)
  21. ^ Ganzera M, Yayla Y, Khan IA. (2001). “Analysis of the marker compounds of Rhodiola rosea L. (golden root) by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography”. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo)49(4): 465-7. PMID: 11310675
  22. ^ Darbinyan, V.; Aslanyan, G.; Amroyan, E.; Gabrielyan, E.; Malmstroumlm, C.; Panossian, A. Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depressionNordic Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 61, Issue 5 2007 , pages 343–348 ; accessed Dec 2008

Panossian, A., Wikman, G. 2010. Rosenroot (Roseroot): Traditional Use, Chemical Composition, Pharmacology, and Clinical Efficacy. Phytomedicine 17(5-6): 481-493. DOI 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.02.002

External links

Critical of effects on mountain sickness


Further reading

  • Richard P. Brown, MD & Patricia L. Gerbarg with Barbara Graham. “The Rhodiola Revolution” Rodale Press, 2004. A discussion of the benefits of Rhodiola rosea.

Tyrosine (abbreviated as Tyr or Y)[1] or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine Research and Studies

Research and Studies

  1. ^ IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (1983). “Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides”. Recommendations on Organic & Biochemical Nomenclature, Symbols & Terminology. Retrieved 2007-05-17.
  2. ^ “Tyrosine”. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. — Columbia University Press. 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
  3. ^ Douglas Harper (2001). “Tyrosine”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
  4. ^ “Tyrosine”. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
  5. ^ Hoffhines AJ, Damoc E, Bridges KG, Leary JA, Moore KL (2006). “Detection and purification of tyrosine-sulfated proteins using a novel anti-sulfotyrosine monoclonal antibody”. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (49): 37877–87. doi:10.1074/jbc.M609398200. PMC 1764208.PMID17046811.
  6. ^ Molnár GA, Wagner Z, Markó L, Kó Szegi T, Mohás M, Kocsis B, Matus Z, Wagner L, Tamaskó M, Mazák I, Laczy B, Nagy J, Wittmann I (2005). “Urinary ortho-tyrosine excretion in diabetes mellitus and renal failure: evidence for hydroxyl radical production”. Kidney Int. 68(5): 2281–7. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00687.x.PMID 16221230.
  7. ^ Molnár GA, Nemes V, Biró Z, Ludány A, Wagner Z, Wittmann I (2005). “Accumulation of the hydroxyl free radical markers meta-, ortho-tyrosine and DOPA in cataractous lenses is accompanied by a lower protein and phenylalanine content of the water-soluble phase”.Free Radic. Res. 39 (12): 1359–66.doi:10.1080/10715760500307107. PMID 16298866.
  8. ^ Optimized Synthesis of L-m-Tyrosine Suitable for Chemical Scale-Up Cara E. Humphrey, Markus Furegati, Kurt Laumen, Luigi La Vecchia, Thomas Leutert, J. Constanze D. Müller-Hartwieg, and Markus Vögtle Organic Process Research & Development 2007, 11, 1069–1075doi:10.1021/op700093y
  9. ^ Rasmussen DD, Ishizuka B, Quigley ME, Yen SS (1983). “Effects of tyrosine and tryptophan ingestion on plasma catecholamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations”. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 57 (4): 760–3. doi:10.1210/jcem-57-4-760.PMID 6885965.
  10. ^ Leathwood PD, Pollet P (1982). “Diet-induced mood changes in normal populations”. Journal of psychiatric research 17 (2): 147–54.doi:10.1016/0022-3956(82)90016-4. PMID 6764931.
  11. ^ a b Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF (1994). “Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress”. Brain Res. Bull. 33 (3): 319–23.doi:10.1016/0361-9230(94)90200-3. PMID 8293316.
  12. ^ Lieberman HR, Corkin S, Spring BJ, Wurtman RJ, Growdon JH (1985). “The effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors on human behavior”. Am J Clin Nutr. 42 (2): 366–370. PMID 4025206.
  13. ^ a b Hao S, Avraham Y, Bonne O, Berry EM (2001). “Separation-induced body weight loss, impairment in alternation behavior, and autonomic tone: effects of tyrosine”. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 68(2): 273–81. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(00)00448-2.PMID 11267632.
  14. ^ Magill RA, Waters WF, Bray GA, Volaufova J, Smith SR, Lieberman HR, McNevin N, Ryan DH (2003). “Effects of tyrosine, phentermine, caffeine D-amphetamine, and placebo on cognitive and motor performance deficits during sleep deprivation”. Nutritional Neuroscience 6 (4): 237–46. doi:10.1080/1028415031000120552.PMID 12887140.
  15. ^ Neri DF, Wiegmann D, Stanny RR, Shappell SA, McCardie A, McKay DL (1995). “The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness”. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine 66 (4): 313–9. PMID 7794222.
  16. ^ Reinstein DK, Lehnert H, Wurtman RJ (1985). “Dietary tyrosine suppresses the rise in plasma corticosterone following acute stress in rats”. Life Sci. 37 (23): 2157–63. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(85)90566-1. PMID 4068899.
  17. ^ Deijen JB, Wientjes CJ, Vullinghs HF, Cloin PA, Langefeld JJ (1999). “Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course”. Brain Res. Bull. 48 (2): 203–9. doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(98)00163-4. PMID 10230711.
  18. ^ Mahoney CR, Castellani J, Kramer FM, Young A, Lieberman HR (2007). “Tyrosine supplementation mitigates working memory decrements during cold exposure”. Physiology and Behavior IN PRESS (4): 575. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.05.003.PMID 17585971.
  19. ^ a b Chinevere TD, Sawyer RD, Creer AR, Conlee RK, Parcell AC (2002). “Effects of L-tyrosine and carbohydrate ingestion on endurance exercise performance”. J. Appl. Physiol. 93 (5): 1590–7.doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00625.2001 (inactive 2008-06-25).PMID12381742.
  20. ^ Strüder HK, Hollmann W, Platen P, Donike M, Gotzmann A, Weber K (1998). “Influence of paroxetine, branched-chain amino acids and tyrosine on neuroendocrine system responses and fatigue in humans”. Horm. Metab. Res. 30 (4): 188–94. doi:10.1055/s-2007-978864.PMID 9623632.
  21. ^ Thomas JR, Lockwood PA, Singh A, Deuster PA (1999). “Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment”.Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 64 (3): 495–500. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(99)00094-5. PMID 10548261.
  22. ^ Gelenberg, A.J., Wojcik, J.D., Growdon, J.H., Sved, A.F., and Wurtman, R.J.. “Tyrosine for the Treatment of Depression” (PDF). Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2008-03-25.


External links

Citicoline (INN), also known as cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-Choline) & cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine.

Research and Studies

  1. ^ Giménez R, Raïch J, Aguilar J (November 1991). “Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice”. British Journal of Pharmacology 104(3): 575–8. PMC 1908237.PMID 1839138.
  2. ^ Teather LA, Wurtman RJ (2005). “Dietary CDP-choline supplementation prevents memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats”. Learning & Memory 12 (1): 39–43.doi:10.1101/lm.83905. PMC548494.PMID 15647594.
  3. ^ “Supplement naturally boosts ageing brain power”. Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
  4. ^ Silveri MM, Dikan J, Ross AJ, et al.(November 2008). “Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy”. NMR in Biomedicine 21 (10): 1066–75. doi:10.1002/nbm.1281.PMID 18816480.
  5. ^ Cavun S, Savci V (October 2004). “CDP-choline increases plasma ACTH and potentiates the stimulated release of GH, TSH and LH: the cholinergic involvement”.Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology 18(5): 513–23. doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2004.00272.x. PMID 15482372.
  6. ^ Benson S, Arck PC, Tan S, et al. (June 2009). “Disturbed stress responses in women with polycystic ovary syndrome”.Psychoneuroendocrinology 34 (5): 727–35.doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.12.001.PMID 19150179.
  7. ^ Florio P, Zatelli MC, Reis FM, degli Uberti EC, Petraglia F (2007). “Corticotropin releasing hormone: a diagnostic marker for behavioral and reproductive disorders?”.Frontiers in Bioscience 12: 551–60.doi:10.2741/2081. PMID 17127316.

Research And Studies

As of 2003 only three controlled clinical trials had tested “older adults with memory problems”,[7]and these studies had promising results[7], in which a 2003 Cochrane review decided that the results were inconclusive.[8]
Prior to 2003, a different study from 1985[9] had tested young, healthy adults, but this study had 12 subjects and used a short treatment period.[7]

  1. ^ Lörincz C, Szász K, Kisfaludy L (1976). “The synthesis of ethyl apovincaminate”. Arzneimittel-Forschung 26 (10a): 1907.PMID 1037211.
  2. ^ Szilágyi G, Nagy Z, Balkay L, et al. (2005). “Effects of vinpocetine on the redistribution of cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in chronic ischemic stroke patients: a PET study”. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 229-230: 275–84.doi:10.1016/j.jns.2004.11.053. PMID15760651.
  3. ^ Dézsi L, Kis-Varga I, Nagy J, Komlódi Z, Kárpáti E (2002). “[Neuroprotective effects of vinpocetine in vivo and in vitro. Apovincaminic acid derivatives as potential therapeutic tools in ischemic stroke]” (in Hungarian). Acta Pharmaceutica Hungarica 72(2): 84–91. PMID 12498034.
  4. ^ “Vinpocetine. Monograph”. Alternative Medicine Review 7 (3): 240–3. 2002. PMID 12126465.
  5. ^ a b c d Jeon, KI; Xu, X; Aizawa, T; Lim, JH; Jono, H; Kwon, DS; Abe, J; Berk, BC et al. (2010). “Vinpocetine inhibits NF-kappaB-dependent inflammation via an IKK-dependent but PDE-independent mechanism.”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (21): 9795–800.doi:10.1073/pnas.0914414107. PMC 2906898.PMID 20448200.
  6. ^ a b c d e Medina, AE (2010). “Vinpocetine as a potent antiinflammatory agent.”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (22): 9921–2.doi:10.1073/pnas.1005138107. PMC2890434.PMID 20495091.
  7. ^ a b c McDaniel MA, Maier SF, Einstein GO (2003). “‘Brain-specific’ nutrients: a memory cure?”. Nutrition 19 (11-12): 957–75.doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(03)00024-8. PMID 14624946.
  8. ^ a b Szatmari SZ, Whitehouse PJ (2003). Szatmári, Szabolcs. ed. “Vinpocetine for cognitive impairment and dementia”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD003119.doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003119. PMID12535455.
  9. ^ Subhan Z, Hindmarch I (1985). “Psychopharmacological effects of vinpocetine in normal healthy volunteers”. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 28 (5): 567–71. doi:10.1007/BF00544068.PMID 3899677.
  10. ^ Sitges M, Galván E, Nekrassov V (2005). “Vinpocetine blockade of sodium channels inhibits the rise in sodium and calcium induced by 4-aminopyridine in synaptosomes”. Neurochemistry International 46(7): 533–40. doi:10.1016/j.neuint.2005.02.001. PMID 15843047.
  11. ^ Adám-Vizi V (2000). “[Neuroprotective effect of sodium channel blockers in ischemia: the pathomechanism of early ischemic dysfunction]” (in Hungarian). Orvosi Hetilap 141 (23): 1279–86.PMID 10905082.
  12. ^ Hagiwara M, Endo T, Hidaka H (1984). “Effects of vinpocetine on cyclic nucleotide metabolism in vascular smooth muscle”.Biochemical Pharmacology 33 (3): 453–7. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(84)90240-5. PMID 6322804.
  13. ^ Truss MC, Uckert S, Stief CG, Forssmann WG, Jonas U (1996). “Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoenzymes in the human detrusor smooth muscle. II. Effect of various PDE inhibitors on smooth muscle tone and cyclic nucleotide levels in vitro”.Urological Research 24 (3): 129–34. PMID 8839479.
  14. ^ Gurkovskaia AV, Gokina NI, BuryÄ­ VA, Shuba MF (1987). “[Electrophysiological analysis of the action of kavinton on the smooth muscles]” (in Russian). Biulleten’ Eksperimental’noÄ­ Biologii I Meditsiny 103 (1): 68–71. PMID 3801654.
  15. ^ a b Trejo F, Nekrassov V, Sitges M (2001). “Characterization of vinpocetine effects on DA and DOPAC release in striatal isolated nerve endings”. Brain Research 909 (1-2): 59–67.doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(01)02621-X. PMID11478921.
  16. ^ “Vinpocetine – What You Need to Know About Vinpocetine”. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
  17. ^ Shimizu Y, Saitoh K, Nakayama M, et al. Agranulocytosis induced by vinpocetine. Medicine Online, Retrieved March 08, 2008.
  18. ^ The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines, 1st ed. 1998, Integrative Medicine Communications, pub; Bk&CD-Rom edition, 1999.

White tea
Research and Studies

  1. ^ Tea Guardian. “White & Other Lightly Oxidized Teas”. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  2. ^ a b Chow 1990, p. 142
  3. ^ Rau 2004, p. 129
  4. ^ Hanson 1878, p. 46
  5. ^ a b Hui 2004, p. 961
  6. ^ Kennelly, E. J., Unachukwu, U. J.; Ahmed, S., Kavalier, A., Lyles, J. T. (2010). “White and green teas (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis): variation in phenolic, methylxanthine, and antioxidant profiles.”.Journal of Food Science 75: C541-C548. PMID 20722909.
  7. ^ Serio, K. J., Mao, J. T.; Nie, W. X., Tsu, I. H., Jin Y. S., Rao, J. Y., Lu, Q. Y., Zhang, Z. F., Go, V. L. (2010). “White tea extract induces apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells: the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} and 15-lipoxygenases.”.Cancer Prevention Research 3: 1132-1140. PMID 20668019.
  8. ^ Huff, M. W., Mulvihill, E. E. (2010). “Antiatherogenic properties of flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health..”. Canadian Journal of Cardiology 26: 17A-21A. PMID 20386755.
  9. ^ Dastidar, S. G., Bandyopadhyay, D.; Chatterjee, T. K., Dasgupta, A., Lourduraja, J. (2005). “In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial action of tea: the commonest beverage of Asia.”. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 28: 2125-2127. PMID 16272702.
  10. ^ De la Fuente, M., Baeza, I.; De Castro, N. M., Arranz, L. (2010). “Soybean and green tea polyphenols improve immune function and redox status in very old ovariectomized mice.”. Rejuvenation Research 13: 665-674. PMID20818935.
  11. ^ Science Daily. “White Tea Could Keep You Healthy and Lookin Young”. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  12. ^ Thring, Tamsyn SA; Pauline Hili, Declan P. Naughton (2009). “Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants.”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 9.doi:10.1186/1472-6882-9-27.


Research and Studies

Black tea

Research and Studies


  1. ^ Ken Bressett “Tea Money of China” International Primitive Money Society Newsletter Number 44, August 2001
  2. ^ Upton Tea Imports, “A Brief Guide to Tea”.
  3. ^ ISO3103, “ISO 3103″.
  4. ^ Stephen J. Duffy, MB, BS, PhD; John F. Keaney Jr, MD; Monika Holbrook, MA; Noyan Gokce, MD; Peter L. Swerdloff, BA; Balz Frei, PhD, “Short- and Long-Term Black Tea Consumption Reverses Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease”; Joseph A. Vita, MD From Evans Department of Medicine and Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass, and Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis (B.F.).)
  5. ^ Mario Lorenz, Nicoline Jochmann, Amélie von Krosigk, Peter Martus, Gert Baumann1, Karl Stang and Verena Stang “Addition of milk prevents vascular protective effects of tea”. Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Kardiologie und Angiologie, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, CCM, Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany Institut für Biometrie und Klinische Epidemiologie, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, CCM, Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany
  6. ^ Theaflavins from Black Tea, Especially Theaflavin-3-gallate, Reduce the Incorporation of Cholesterol into Mixed Micelles. Mario A. Vermeer, Theo P. J. Mulder and Henri O. F. Molhuizen, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56 (24), pp 12031–12036


External links

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